Zonal Parking Studies In Uitm Campus Tourism Essay


UiTM is Malaysias largest institution of higher learning in terms of size and population. It has experienced phenomenal growth since its origin in 1956 and it is still growing. The university has expanded nationwide with 12 branch campuses, three satellite campuses, 9 city campuses and 21 affiliated colleges. With this vast network and a workforce of 17,000, the university offers more than 300 academic programmes in a conducive and vibrant environment. It is also home to some 172,000 students.

Presently, Shah Alam is host to 45.5% of the total number of students, while the rest are distributed over the other campuses, with Perlis campus handling the biggest number (6.3%). These campuses provide excellent opportunities for Bumiputeras all over the country to pursue higher education and attain higher economic and social development. UiTM’s main campus started with the laying of its foundation stone on 14 October 1967 by Tun Abdul Razak and by mid 70s, the campus was already in full operation. It acts as the focal point of development and expansion to a network of 21 other campuses. In the year 2004, Shah Alam campus had approximately 36,000 full-time and 6,500 part-time students. There are 13 residential colleges within the campus that house no less than 16,800 students. Apart from that, many homes around the university also open their doors to off-campus students. About 25 numbers of faculties had in Shah Alam campus. This campus is very close to Shah Alam city centre and therefore public facilities and services are within easy reach. An added advantage is the fact that Shah Alam is the hub for information technology and multimedia applications. It is also easily accessible via the major highways that link the city to strategic locations in the country.

The university campus provides all staffs and students a place for their working, studying and even living. Parking is one of the important topics in urban transportation planning and traffic management. This is true too for the university campus. In recent years, Malaysia’s higher education has developed rapidly, which has led to a dramatic increase of students educated on campuses and thus severe shortage of land used for teaching and researching. The parking system that used in the Shah Alam campus were open-space parking for students or visitors and staff card entry and exit system.

Parking facilities and programs were also considerable importance in traffic engineering. Most urban and regional commercial centers were access primarily by automobiles. The viability of these areas depends in a large part on the availability of convenient parking facilities adjacent to or easily accessible to desired destinations. Thus, comprehensive parking programs involve planning, design, construction, operation and financing parking facilities, as well as placement and enforcement of parking regulations. Experts agree that, when it comes to on-campus parking, there is no such thing as a one-size fits-all approach. The parking problem can be different in each case to another and the parking problem solution also can be varies.

This study is about a study on the supply and demand car-parking facilities for engineering complex and Melati parking lots in UiTM main campus that associated with zonal parking or trend of pattern problem. The supply car parking facilities is for existing parking lots in UiTM main campus, whether it’s enough space for users demand. It also derived by assessing potential spaces for parking facilities, including the possibilities of utilize any on-street parking.

Problem Statement

In Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam, among the most complaint from students, are the parking facilities problems. For students, UiTM had provided various parking area surround the building. As engineering students, they have choices to park at Melati, Mawar and near Dataran Cendekia parking (surrounding engineering complex building). Although they are several of parking facilities near engineering complex building, the students are still having the parking problem. There are only complaints from students about this parking problem in UiTM and no technical evidences to prove it.

The demand for university or public parking area has increased drastically in recent years by the increasing number of students especially for non-resident. An existing parking supply remained and it does not increase in proportion with demand parking. This will effect the lost of time by the users for limited parking space searching. Even though parking needs and parking issues have always been a major concern for institution organizations, it frequently fails to receive proper planning processes, including providing necessary security safeguards. Other than that, illegal parking causes traffic circulation problems. For example, one or more parking lots were used for park construction materials other than vehicles.

1.3 Objective

For providing students enough space for the land used for teaching and researching. The purpose of having an observation or empirical study is to measure the demand between supply parking facilities and parking pattern. Besides, other suggestion can be determine to improve the general features existing in the campus parking systems.

1.4 Scope of the Research

The locations for the zonal parking studies are at the faculty of engineering building and beside the college of Melati in UiTM Shah Alam campus. The campus inflow and outflow of vehicles, the location and use of parking lots also will be analyzed. The average parking duration and the use turnovers of 2 parking lots are computed from the survey data. Duration of the studies is on weekday (2days) from 7.30 am to 7.30 pm at engineering complex and Melati parking lots.

1.5 Significance of Research

The parking study important for determine parking pattern and trend demand for campus environment. It also essential to implement parking policy equate the demand and supply parking system in selected parking area in UiTM campus. From the observation, parking can be utilized more efficiently by the users.


2.1 Introduction

In recent years, more and more university employees or students tend to have the transport for their facilities. As a result of this situation, the number of cars and motorcycles owned by them is increasing rapidly. In addition, the communication between universities and communities has become much closer than before. This leads to a shortage of campus parking capacity. Various researches and theories have been developed to determine the supply and demand of parking facilities. There are also many theories about the recommendation and solution of solving the parking problem.

Early in 1990, McIntyre made a survey in twenty-five community colleges in California and recommended some measures for improving the campus parking environment. Carl and David (2001) applied mathematical models to investigate the effects of various campus parking policies. In mainland China, Leng and Yan (2003) examined the university campus systems for taking account of the specific conditions. Song and Wang (2004) conducted several relevant surveys in Chinese universities. Overall, however, few systematic reports of the studies on campus parking problems can be found in literature. It can be stated that almost all university campus in other country than Malaysia have same problem dealing with the parking system.

2.2 Types of Parking

Public and private are the two broad categories of parking. Public parking describe as on streets and alleys (curb-side parking) or off-street. On the curb-street area, the parking may be free or not and it may regulate or unregulated which is no parking overnight. Curb-street in downtown area usually metered and regulated. For the off-street parking usually in lots, decks or exclusive parking structures operated by the private firms or public agencies to open to the public. The certain rule of some facilities may operated such as parking on a long term. (Papacostas, 2001).

Home or apartment building garages, stalls and driveways, or affiliate-specific parking (permit required or access card to enter home). Parking need stalls and pricing arrangement schemes characteristics that important to maximize revenue as well as to fulfill certain purposes for pricing schemes. For the stalls may be parallel or angled (20O-90 O).

2.3 Parking Studies

According to the Transportation Planning Handbook, published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers (p. 199-400) the 1992 edition, parking studies are used to evaluate the current supply of parking or to plan for future parking needs. Some parking studies are only concerned with the adequacy of parking for a particular need, such as a shopping mall, office building, or a sports facility. Other studies are designed to evaluate the parking conditions in an area to establish time limits, parking rates, and the need for additional parking. Some studies are used to aid operational analyses in relation to removal or modification of curb parking. Still others are required to evaluate residential parking impacted by encroachment from outside parkers. There are a wide variety of other specialized studies to meet specific needs. Studies must be conducted to collect the required information about the capacity and use of existing parking facilities. In addition, information about the demand for parking is needed. Parking studies may be restricted to a particular traffic producer or attractor, such as a store, or they may encompass an entire region, such as a central business district.

Before parking studies can be initiated, the study area must be defined. The survey area should also include any area that might be impacted by the parking modifications. The boundary should be drawn to counts by minimizing the number of entrance and exit points.

Parking studies include financial feasibility, functional design, structural design and demand studies. For this research, priority for demand studies and functional design studies only. Demand studies classified into three major types to determine the demand studies. There are comprehensive, limited and site specific.

Comprehensive demand studies cover an entire area, such as central business district. It also contains the prediction models which include population growth, demographic, social and economic trends as well as trends of using the transportation modes. Detailed information on utilization patterns from analytical and comprehensive inventories on and off street were collected too. From the information, the lack of supply and traffic circulation will be known. Then proposed scenario of for fulfilling anticipated demands are developed and evaluated for judgment by authorities. Inventories studies was included list of graphic display of existing information, geometric design, traffic characteristic, traffic operation and traffic control and regulation. (Papacostas, 2001)

Similar to comprehensive studies, the limited demand studies not contain the geographic element and some requirements. This type of demand studies will investigate one type of parking and the estimation for future demand not required for forecast. The result of survey involves field measurement, past case studies result and analysis and the data of the relevant information about the case study area. The limited parking studies will be covered on this research.

For site-specific demand studies, narrow in geographically but analytically or analysis extensive. Focus site may include existing, planned or expanding area for development. Then, information of existing supply and utilization are taken and future demand will predict. The information collected under operational conditions such as speed study, travel time and delay, traffic volume, parking, accidents and others.

2.4 Parking Policies

According to C. Jotin Khisty (1990), the planner has to contend or discuss the formulation of parking policies that is one of the more difficult tasks. The difficulty lies in coordinating parking policies with several other planning objectives. The following consideration of having parking policies may be taken into account:

To design parking lots that not effected by the entry and exit of vehicles.

To ensure that the interest of business organization along the street is enhanced by good parking arrangements.

To maintain or protect the character of the area by restricting parking and enforcing land-use controls.

Car park areas are spaces that are provided, planned as places to park cars or other vehicles. From the Town and Country Planning Department in Peninsular Malaysia, the policies and guideline standard has been stated to fulfill a better parking environment for urban development.

2.4.1 Implementation Policies

Provision of a Comprehensive Car Parking Plan at Urban Areas

Each local authority must provide a comprehensive car park area plan at the urban level for integration into the Local Plan for a period of 5 to 15 years.

Determination of Maximum Limit of Parking Lots

Determine the maximum number of parking lots within a city based on radial road capacity that leads to the city centre.

Details of Parking Lot Provision in Development Projects

Each developer must outline detailed plans concerning the provision of parking lots according to standards in the planning approval application. Development proposal report should outline the estimated parking lot requirement, quantity of lots that should be provided, and type of car park structure and payment collection methods.

Conditions Regarding Parking Facility in Issuing Certificate of Fitness (CF)

Interior space that is designed to show a structure that is orderly and clean has a mechanical and electrical system of quality, to create arrangement and signage that provides clear movement orientation for users.

The Provision of Shared Car Parks

Encourage the implementation of mixed or integrated development projects that combine three or more land uses and of different business activities within the same building / complex.

Joint Use Parking Concept

Separate development area does not exceed 400 meters and has peak parking hours that do not conflict.

Introduction of Parking Impression Scheme

Local authorities should enhance the quantity of car park areas in existing areas so that it is able to increase the number of cars as much as 30% – 60% from the original quantity without requiring additional land.

Payment Policy for Parking Area

Implement a payment rate that is higher to decrease the number of cars in the city centre.

2.4.2 General Parking Policies for University Campus:

Faculty/staff lot is identified by signs at the entrances and is for faculty/staff parking. A current faculty/staff permit is required.

Student lots are marked as non-residential student parking. A student permit is required to use these lots, including designated off-street parking associated with campus-owned houses.

Parking at the Engineering Complex parking lot is not permitted for students.

Park only in designated parking areas. Areas designated by yellow curbs, hash marks, or those with no lines designating a space are not available for parking.

Do not park in driveways.

Use only one parking space.

Do not park on the grass.

Do not park in disabled spaces without a disabled placard/ permit.

Do not park in fire lanes.

Do not park in the faculty/staff lot during reserved times.

Do not park in reserved spaces.

Do not drive on lawns or sidewalks.

Warnings will be given the first full week of each semester for cars parked without a valid permit, but all other policies will be enforced.

2.5 Guideline Standard by Town and Country Planning Department in Peninsular Malaysia

General Guideline

Standard Classification According to the City Population Size Requirement and usage of parking space depends upon the type, scale and concentration of activities and also the number of residents in a city.

Standard Based on Urban Traffic Modal Split

Standards for the provision of car parking space for various types of land uses should be formulated based on several values of the modal split of private transportation mode to the quantity of commuters who utilize public transportation modes.

Specific Guidelines

Guidelines Provided for Housing Area Car Park

Heavy vehicle parking area in low cost residential area (including lorry, trailer, bus and heavy machinery).

Housing development that is fronting the local road, access road or cul-de-sacs.

The provision of car park areas within condominium development equipped with mechanical equipment.

These car park guidelines are based on a modal split:

High cost condominium or apartment – city exceeding 1 million inhabitants.

High cost condominium or apartment – city of 300 thousand to 1 million inhabitants.

High cost condominium or apartment – city of 100 thousand to 300 thousand inhabitants.

Medium cost apartment – city exceeding 1 million inhabitants.

Medium cost apartment – city of 300 thousand to 1 million inhabitants.

Medium cost apartment – city of 100 thousand to 300 thousand inhabitants.

Low cost apartment – all cities.

Parking Standards for Housing Area Car Parks

Parking Guidelines and Standards for Commercial Area Car Parks

Parking Guidelines for Industrial Area Car Parks

The provision of clustered car parks.

The provision of car park in industrial plots.

The provision of car park for special industrial factories.

Parking Standard for Industrial Area Car Park

Parking Guidelines for Institution Area Car Park

Parking Standards of Institution Area Car Park

Parking Standards of Recreation Area Car Park

Parking Guidelines for Other Urban Activities






Sites identification & selection

Parking studies data collection

Data statistical analysis & evaluation


Figure 3.1: Study Flow Process Chart

3.1 Title, Objective and Scopes

Before start any research, it is often necessary to know the title, objective and scopes of research. The need of having these materials is to know the preliminary understanding of zonal parking studies. Objective of this research is to determination of current parking for supply between demands and parking pattern was focused on parking inventory, parking usage survey. This entire works will give the parking characteristic (existing condition) and the total load of the current parking in the location during 2 days from 7.30am until 7.30pm.

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3.2 Sites Identification and Selection

There are many parking lots within the Shah Alam campus area. The study area for the survey data is focus at the Engineering Complex and Melati parking area shown at Figure 3.2.1. The location was selected because of high population number of non-resident and staff. Although, it easy for numerator to count the survey data at this two parking lots and identify the parking supply and parking demand. The focus of the research was at car parking facilities for students and staff in engineering faculty.


Figure 3.2.1: Locations of two parking lots to survey

3.3 Parking Studies Data Collection

The data collection can be determined from the survey. Since curb parking or off streets parking is an element of parking supply, it is often essential to estimate the demand for parking and check the balance between supply and demand. If demand exceeds supply, additional off-street parking may have to be provided. Type of parking in the Melati parking lot is public parking. While, private parking is on the Engineering Complex parking lot.

Firstly, collect the number of inflow and outflow vehicles especially cars to the study area. The surveyor must count the number of cars at entry and exit each parking lot from 7.30 am until 7.30 pm for a day. The length of interval time is δ=15 min. If a vehicle enters the parking lot at time interval t1 and exits at time interval t2, then its time span for parking on the campus is Δt = t2- t1 interval. Assume that the summation of the travel time spent on the campus and the time delay for searching for a parking lot is not more than 10 min.

Supply is much easier to quantify than is demand because it is a physical count. Demand, on the other hand, is an estimate of the number of drivers who wish to park in the study area at any given time. Supply is generally constant, although there can be some changes during the day (e.g., tow away zones during peak hours, part-time loading zones, etc.). Demand varies by time. In fact, one of the elements to be defined in the study is the time of peak demand. In some areas there may be multiple peaks because of the differing uses within the study area. A simple example is an office complex. The peak employee accumulation may be by 9.00 am; while the peak client or visitor accumulation may be 11.30 am or 2.30 pm. Deliveries or service personnel may peak at still different times.

Current demand may be estimated in those study areas where supply greatly exceeds demand by merely counting the accumulated vehicles at various times of the day. However, when the demand reaches 85 percent or more of the supply, it may not represent the true demand because there may be additional demand that is not present because of the lack of adequate parking.

3.4 Data Statistical Analysis and Evaluation

After got the data, the several statically analysis has to be shown to recognize the pattern of parking demand. Parking measurement and analysis consist of different graph analysis. The results can be determined by:

Total parking supply as calculate as parking could be parked in study area over the given period of the study. However, it does not mean that all vehicles could be parked at same time.

Number of vehicles per interval vs. time (inflow and outflow). It can be seen that there are peaks volume of cars corresponding to the periods.

Number of vehicles vs. realized parking demands in two lots. The realized parking demands associated with these lots for every fifteen minutes.

Number of vehicles vs. time shows the total parking demands of the campus for each time interval and compare between supply and demand of parking.

3.5 Recommendation

To solving the parking problem, there are two ways to solve the problem, either supply new parking spaces or reduce the parking demand if demand exceeds the supply parking.


4.1 Parking Measurement and Analysis

Real time trend on parking demand

Variation of demand vs. supply over the period

Parking turn-over at the two parking lots

4.2 Expected Outcomes

On the basis of these statistical results, the problems have been explored and suggestions have been given for improving the campus parking system. It is expected that this case study can benefit the solving of similar problems existing in other UiTM branch campuses.


5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Limitations and Constraints

5.3 Recommendation



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