Child labour is the working of children of ages under 18 years old for number of hours that contrast their body growth and affects their health badly. This research is studying the affects of child labour on development of countries and trying to prove that the child labour is cause of delaying of some countries due to its effects on education. To prove that an interviews with labour children’s and their families have been made. More over a lot of statistics have been gathered by me of child labour in several countries from uniceff and international labour organization in addition to world health organization .the results which have been indicated is that most of the child labour found around the world is in the developing countries because children leave schools to work so in the future they become untrained adult can work.
Child labour is the working of young children under the age of 18 years old for large number of hours and in unsuitable jobs .It was noted that The Child labour it is the work of children in un suitable ages for unsuitable work hours or under unhealthy conditions and under certain circumstances that contrast with their body growth and their education and also their ability for creations (February 2, 1992, The Child Labour Situation) . also it was conducted that child labour is breaking of human rights which obstacle there psychological life and their physical activities (international labour organization ). Further more the child labour is mainly found in the developing countries and in Africa and Asia . some statistics The high percentage of child labor occurs mainly in mali with percentage of 54.5 Burkina Fasowith 51 percent, Niger and Uganda with 45 percent and Kenya with 4L3 percent, the report said.Bangladesh had 30.1 percent, Nigeria 25.8 Haiti 25, Turkey 24, Ivory Coast 20.5, Pakistan 17.7 percent, Brazil 16.1 , India 14.4. China U.6, and Egypt 11.2 percent. (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND PEACE. 1997). After all of that the aim of my study is to show the bad effects of child labour .moreover if the child labour has effects on developing countries in delay in development.
a-The meaning of child labour
It was noted that The Child labour is the work of children at unsuitable ages for unsuitable work hours or under unhealthy conditions and under certain circumstances that contrast with their body growth and their education .also their ability for creations (February 2, 1992, The Child Labour Situation) . moreover it was conducted that child labour is the breaking of human rights which obstacle there psychological life and their physical activities (international labour organization ).in addition to that there is a positive meaning of child labour i.e. the children can work with their parents in home ,help in family work or get their pocket money from working in the weekends and in the summer vacations (international labour organization ).
b-Causes of child labour :
there are many causes of child labour the main cause for it is poverty of the families . The international labour organization noted that the poverty of the families is the main cause of child labour because the children have tow work to get money which help in keeping their life and the life of their families . in addition to that the families are not capable to pays funds of the schools . also the children who are living in slums and villages which don’t have any educational facilities so they work .more over the work market are demanding more children to worm because they take low salaries and they are less trouble maker than adults for the employer . furthermore it was noted that The children works due to the poverty of their families so they need income to overcome the challenges of the life as a result they need to send their children to the work to get them money. In the other hand they cant send them to the working fields that give high wages as exportation because of restricting laws so they must send them to works of low wages as agriculture or servings fields. They have to work more hours to increase their income even if some of their brothers or sisters in school their parents get them out and send them to work field( number cruncher Putting children to work,By Stephen Nickell,september 2009 · prospect · 15). In the other hand not all the causes are economic causes some of the are from family where children work with their families in farms , shops and different hand made industries said international labour organization .
c-The causes of expansion of child labour
The child labour spreads due to the increase in the number of the part time job with low wages and due to the simplicity of this jobs the child labour market increases . cited in (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND PEACE, 1997,GLOBAL CHILD LABOUR , Robert Evans, Reuters) . Also the large percent of divorce increases the child labour because children have to work to provides their life needs .
d-Bad effects of child labour on children
1-Effects of child labour on children health
The world health organization noted that the working of children in some fields are very dangerous to children’s health such as agriculture . The working of the children in the fields are very harmful because they maybe exposed to insecticides .More over they use very dangerous tools such as knives and machines . Further more they are to snakes bites , bilharithia and carrying heavy loads . The children working don’t have information about how to use these machines or these tools so they can easily get hurt . Also girls are more exposed to injuries and health affections where they work at younger ages and for more hours as they work outside home and they have to work in homes too so they work for more hours . INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND PEACE noted that the number of boys in the age between 10-14 is 41 million which is more than the number of girls who worked but the survey said that the girls were left at home for taking care of home and cooking and those of them who work then return and make house work so they are considered to be working more boys
2-Effects of child labour on children future and education
It was noted that lately the child labour has been paid more attention specially in developing countries in which most of child labour occurs specially in countryside . further more they have noticed that child labour has many bad effects on children like reducing attendance in school .
The result of child labour is that it reduces the presence in school by 46 percent and 21 percent in learning and understanding the
Sciences and increasing the ability of children twice to work and moreover it affects the child health later cited in
Case study integrated that In an investigation in Ghana they have discovered that due to child labour the attendance in school decreases and there is a direct proportion between child labour and the attendance in school also the ability of children to read decreases as the hours of work increases therefore there is negative proportion between child labour and education(Why Should We Care About Child Labour ?The Education, Labor Market, and Health,Consequences of Child Labor,Kathleen Beegle,Rajeev Dehejia,Roberta Gatti)
The child who works today will be tomorrow un responsible adult who is un educated and not trained said ILO Director-General Michel
e-Statistics of child labour in different countries
International organization labour noted that ” 73milion children around the world from the age of 14 to 13 works “two
thirds of the 73 million were in Asia and
24 million were in Africa The child labour also occurs in the developed countries as united states and Britain as well as countries in south Europe
It was indicated that The high percentage of child labour occurs mainly in mali with percentage of 54.5 Burkina Faso with 51 percent, Niger and
Uganda with 45 percent and Kenya with 4L3 percent, the report said. Bangladesh had 30.1 percent, Nigeria 25.8, Haiti 25, Turkey 24, Ivory Coast 20.5, Pakistan 17.7 percent, Brazil 16.1 , India 14.4. China U.6, and Egypt 11.2 percent. Asia had the greatest number in the age group, with 44. 6 million or 13 percent of the total, hut Africa had the highest proportion with 26.3 percent or 23.6 million children working. Latin America lagged well behind, with 5.1 million or 9.8 percent of the group”. Cited in (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND PEACE. 1997,GLOBAL CHILD LABOuR,Robert Evans, Reuters)
One in six children in developing countries are engaged in child labour
Children aged 5-14 engaged in child labour (%), by region (1999-2008)
Boys are more likely to engage in child labour
Children aged 5-14 engaged in child labour (%), by gender (1999-2008)
Child labour is most prevalent in Africa
Percentage of children aged 5-14 years engaged in child labour (2003-2008)
Graphs and statistics are cited in child info with sponsored by uniceff
An example of the child labour I choose Ahmed who is 14 years old working at a small shop ironing and dry cleaning, in the midst of hard work already. After making interview with Ahmed i know that his family consist of 5 brothers and sisters he is the middle one. his father make him work to help him overcoming the life needs . Ahmed said that “i wake every day at 7:00 o’clock and ran to the shop to help my boss in ironing the customers clothes and when it is after noon i went to the customers delivering to the clothes and getting others to start ironing them and give back to the customer at night ” . more over i make an interview with the cause his father and with owner of the shop who permits this work . by interviewing Mr Kmal who Told me that Ahmed who works for 12 hours a day in this small age is that he now can turn on dry cleaning machine at his own without the help of know one . moreover he can iron alot of clothing in short time . by asking Ahmed’s father he said that “i think that the working of children is more greater benefit than education and Ahmed can get his own pocket money without education”. more over he said that even his older brother who has been educated till thanwya ama did not working while Ahmed did. further more after getting statistics from uniceff and international labour organization I realized that that there were some 2.7 million working children aged between six and fourteen (noted in international labour organization) . i use all of this interviews and statistics to prove that the child labour is 1 of the cause of not developing our countries .
Goodyear, Rosemary .(2006) overworked children? , New Zealand Journal of History ,Vol. 40 Issue 1, p75-90, 16p, 1http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=12&sid=57000ce9-d687-48e9-84ca-10dc8fe7db23%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=hlh&AN=21083652
Nickell, Stephen.(sep2009) Putting children to work, Economist and the Warden of Nuffield College, Oxford , Issue 162, p15-15, 1/3p http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=119&sid=57000ce9-d687-48e9-84ca-10dc8fe7db23%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=hlh&AN=44959548
Evans, Robert.( 1997), International Journal of Humanities & Peace , GLOBAL CHILD LABOR ,Vol. 13 Issue 1, p86-86, 1p http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=9&hid=9&sid=57000ce9-d687-48e9-84ca-10dc8fe7db23%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=hlh&AN=18773100
International labour organization About child labour http://www.ilo.org/ipec/facts/lang–en/
Child Labour and IPEC: An overview,international labour organization http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/manila/ipec/about/overview.hth
World health organization,hazardous child labour http://www.who.int/occupational_health/topics/childlabour/en/