What Are The Causes Of Autism Psychology Essay
Over the years, autism has increasingly become people’s concerns. According to Shauntay (2010) , autism is defined as “a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life”. Surprisingly, the number of children with autism has increased alarmingly. In accordance with the latest statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of autistic patients increased by 78% from 2002 to 2011 and one in eighty eight children, one in fifty four boys suffer from this kind of disease (Jon 2012). Besides, autism has many profound effects on children as well as their families. Firstly, regarding children, they are likely to less communicate with others. As a result, this will lead to limited language skills and inability to do social behavior (Johnson 2004). Secondly, parents who have children with autism will feel stressed and susceptible to depression. Hence, the research, with the purpose of giving information about autism, discusses causes, symptoms, treatment of autism (Cristiane 2005).
2. Discussion of findings.
2.1. What are the causes of autism?
The causes of autism have not yet been found; however, the researchers and scientists consider that there is not going to be a single cause. They expose two major theories: environmental causes and some causal components on the genetics front.
2.1.1. Environmental causes.
The first reason of autism is the effect of dangerous chemicals in the environment on an expected mother during the prenatal period. These chemicals do much harm to the child’s neuron development. Especially, mercury in the sea fish or the cosmetics goes into the mother’s body. Mercury is proved to make activities of the brain disturbed then block the development of the child’s brain (Raymond 2011).
In addition, Public health officials believe that vaccines can cause autism because mercury is a component in vaccines, but they do not have any scientific evidence ( Steven 2005). However, in some cases, many doctors said that if the child was ill or had a mitochondrial defect; vaccinations for children can be the environmental factor (Raymond 2011 p.62). The third cause is that a bacterium (Helicobacter pylori) goes to the gut via drinking water that is not hygienic such as rivers, lakes. It can pose the serious influences on the production of chemicals in the brain. The reason is that the brain and the immune system and the gut are closely related and they work together in the same time (Harry, Mobley, George, Stuart 2001).
The brain is a communicating organ; therefore, the scientists believe that the culprits of autism have a connection with communication between brain cells. According to the research of Dr. David Amaral (2011) at the MIND Institute, there are at least 20 genes that seem to be associated with autism; however, each gene has related just 1 to 2 percent of all autistic cases. Moreover, he found that there are certain parts of the brain (the frontal lobe), right behind the forehead as well as a small structure which is about two inches in from child ear, called the amygdala. These structures quickly grow in the patient and seem to be found bigger than in normal children. Besides, Dr. Haines and his team from Vanderbilt of the Vanderbilt Center for Human Genetics Research reported that the connection between autism and two genes, namely CDH9 and CDH10 which are important in connected the brain cells.
2.2. How to identify the symptoms in autistic children?
Autism is a serious disease in children; therefore, it needs detecting soon. Parents can easily find the symptoms of autism in their children before 36 months old. Especially, the children with autism about 2 years old have the clearly symptoms. According to Raymond (2011), in general, the children with autism have the defects in social interaction, communication (language), and behavior.
Regarding social interaction, the children with autism are isolated with the surrounding environment; that is, they don’t have the connection with their parent. In about 3 months old, they do not smile, react with the strange person or hardly look directly in others’ eyes. In over 20 months old, they do not play with the other children of the same age. Furthermore, they have misbehavior such as hitting their friends. (Raymond 2011 p.27)
The major standard to diagnose autism is language disorders. They usually are dumb or just prone to make meaningless sounds. In around 5 years old, they only can talk some simple words. Moreover, when they get older and older, they talk with wrong grammar and no organization. Besides, they do not know how to talk to others or don’t understand the meaning of words. (Raymond 2011 p.p.29-30).
In terms of behavior, they are close-knit with some things including teddy bears, toys with the action of smelling or licking. Most their activities have no aim, even, some activities can make them hurt. They do some activities repeatedly such as watching the same a TV program or listening to the same story. (Raymond 2011 p.31).
2.3. What is the treatment for autism?
After diligently studying the various types of autism with their diagnoses as well as gravity, researchers, experts and doctors have found some treatment to help autistic people. Although the available treatments and therapies are many, there is no clearly definite “cure” for the disease. Parents, however, can enormously support their children diagnosed with autism” to increase their skills and try to have a life as normal as possible” (Raymond 2011).
One of the major troubling issues in children with autism is the seriously limited ability to speak. The aim of speech – language therapy, hence, is to enhance international communication via expression of notions as well as interpersonal interaction, gaining desires and sharing information (Raymond 2011).As stated by Raymond (2011) and Hayoung A. Lim (2012), the first thing that your child will have to do is to complete a speech evaluation from a licensed speech language pathologist with the main aim is to assess your child’s existing language and communication skills. After studying and analyzing exactly the problems of the child, the speech pathologist will give the viable ways to solve these problems. One of the efficient methods is to use behavioural techniques or developing an individualized intervention program (Hayoung A. Lim 2012). Some treatments for autistic children in speech therapy include helping the child to understand social interaction as well as verbal communication, improving speech rate and rhythm. Besides, it also consists of showing children with autism many essential skills such as play skills, social skills and paying attention and listening skills (Raymond 2011). Hayoung A. Lim claims that from July 2008, parents can have more opportunities to access ASD – specific speech pathology service through the feder – funded helping children with Autism initiative or seek information on the speech pathology Australia website which includes private speech pathologist directories for some of the large Australian states.
According to Raymond (2011 p.116), “The RDI program is a parent – based clinical treatment that addresses the core problems faced try all individuals with ASD, such as learning friendship, empathy, and a love of sharing their word with others” . With this treatment program (RDI), parents who have children with autism are provided suitable tools to work with their children. RDI has the significant efficiency for autism of all ages and “It also helps children improve regardless of their position on the autism spectrum” (Raymond 2011 p.116). According to Raymond (2011 p. 117), “published studies on RDI state that of 17 children ages 2 to 10 on an RDI program, 70% of the children achieved a better diagnostic category using the Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS). Also, Raymond claims that the proportion of children in the study gaining the good results in a regular classroom rose by 70% (from 12% to 82%). With the advanced technology and the appearance of new treatment programs, people have far better opportunities to cure as well as prevent this disease. Autistic children in Viet Nam and other developing countries, however, have to face with a lot of difficulty in access the advanced method of treatment as RDI.
From all the things above, it is clear that autism is the complicated problem that attracts a lot of attention from individual and international organization. The sad fact is that the number of autistic people, especially children with autism has substantial proliferation in the recent years. People today have not found the exact cause and the most efficient treatment for autism. The obvious reasons, however, to believe that this disease, will be cured completely in the coming time are numerous. Hopefully, with the advanced technology of medicine as well as researchers and doctors’ effort, autism will be prevented as soon as possible.
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