Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job.
Job analysis, which is also called job review or job classification, is a systematic exploration of the tasks, duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job. The process of job analysis involves collection of background information, selection of representative jobs to be analyzed, collection of job analysis information, development of a job description and job specification.
The formal and systematic methods of job analysis are functional job analysis, the position analysis questionnaire, and the critical incident technique. Job analysis is useful for preparing job descriptions and job specifications which are the basis for most of the HR activities like recruitment, training, performance appraisal, industrial relations and wage and salary administration.
Job design determines the way in which work should be performed which, in turn, affects the degree of authority of an employee over the work; the scope of decision-making by the employee; the number of tasks an employee has to perform; and employee satisfaction. The main objectives of job design are to meet organization requirements such as higher productivity, operational efficiency and quality; and to simultaneously satisfy the psychological and sociological needs of the employees.
The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.
1. Purpose of Job Analysis
The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the ‘job relatedness’ of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.
Determining Training Needs
Job Analysis can be used in training/”needs assessment” to identify or develop:
assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
equipment to be used in delivering the training
Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom…)
Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:
compensable job factors
work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)
Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:
job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;
appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;
minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;
selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
orientation materials for applicants/new hires
Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:
goals and objectives
length of probationary periods
duties to be evaluated
2. APPROACHES FOR COLLECTION OF JOB INFORMATION:
There are different approaches to job design – the engineering approach, the human relations approach, the job characteristics approach and the sociotechnical approach. An effectively designed job enhances employee productivity and satisfaction. Modern management has many job design options, which can transform monotonous and routine jobs into more challenging and motivating ones. Some of the popular job design options are job rotation, job enlargement and job
3. METHODS FOR GETTING JOB ANALYSIS:
Methods of collecting job analysis information include:
Methods of observation include direct observation, work methods analysis, critical incident technique.
1. Direct observation
Direct Observation is a method of job analysis to observe and record behavior / events / activities / tasks / duties while something is happening.
2. Work methods analysis
Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs. Work methods analysis includes time and motion study and micro-motion analysis.
3. Critical incident technique (CIT model).
Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviors that classify in good and poor performance.
4. INTERVIEW METHOD
Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structured Interviews, unstructured interview, open-ended questions.
Questionnaire methods include 6 techniques as follows:
5. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model)
PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by McCormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that describe generic human work behaviors.
6. Functional job analysis (FJA model)
FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. It includes 7 scales (numbers) that measure: 3 worker-function scales: measure % of time spent with: data, people, things; 1 worker-instruction scale; 3 scales that measure reasoning, mathematics, language.
7. Work Profiling System (WPS model)
WPS model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis, is a computer-administered system for job analysis, developed by Saville & Holdsworth, Ltd.
8. MOSAIC model
MOSAIC model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis used to collect information from incumbents and supervisors. It contains 151 job tasks rated in terms of importance for effective job performance and 22 competencies rated in terms of importance, and needed proficiency at entry.
9. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ model)
CMQ model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by Harvey as a “worker-oriented” job analysis instrument designed to have applicability to a broad range of exempt and nonexempt jobs. It includes 41 general questions of background section, 62 questions of contacts with people, 80 items of decision making, 53 items of physical and mechanical activities, 47 items of work setting.
10. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS model)
FJAS model is is a technique of job analysis that describe jobs from the point of view of the necessary capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory ability, each of the categories consists of two parts – an operational and differential definition and a grading scale.
11. Task Inventory
A task inventory is a list of the discrete activities that make up a specific job in a specific organization.
12. Job element method
This method is same the critical incident technique. It focuses on work behaviors and the results of this behavior rather than more abstract characteristics. Job element method developed by Ernest Prim off.
13. Diary method
This method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask worker maintaining and keeping daily records or list of activities they are doing on every dayâ€¦
14. Checklists and rating scales
Checklist is job analysis method base on an inventory of job elements. You can ask question about purpose of position; key responsibility areas; organization; relationships; decision making; authority; Skills, knowledge, experience; working conditions
15. Competency profiling
Competency modeling is the activity of determining the specific competencies that are characteristic of high performance and success in a given job. Contents of competency modeling include skills, knowledge, abilities, values, interests, personalities.
16. Examining Manuals/reference materials
Manuals/reference materials such as quality manual, human resource manual, procedures, instruction, forms, job descriptionâ€¦are useful for analyst in job analysis. These documents are available for organizations applied to ISO 9000 standard.
17. Technical conference
Technical conference is a useful tool of job analysis base on Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). SMEs conduct brainstorming sessions to identify job elements. SMEs can use all job analysis methods in here.
18.Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model)
Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model) is a method of job analysis, was developed in 1970 by Felix Lopez. Threshold traits analysis system include a standard set of 33 traits: ability traits are “can do” factors and attitudinal traits are “willing to do” factors.
Combination of methods
In process of job analysis, analyst can use and associate all methods to collecting job information. For example, when you use direct observation, then you always do interview method.
4. APPLICATIONS OF JOB ANALYSIS:
What are the uses of job analysis information?
Job analysis information is used in human resources on a regular basis to define:
Job description: A job description gives an account of the work and duties associated with a particular job. It describes the way the job is performed currently. Most job descriptions contain the following information:
the job name
summary description of the job
a list of duties for the job
a list of organizational responsibilities related to the job
Job specifications: Job specifications define the characteristics of the activities associated with the job and given in the job description. They describe the skill sets and qualifications that a candidate for the job should possess.
Job classification: Job classification groups similar jobs into classes and families. This simplifies the overview for managers and is essential for streamlined functioning of an organization.
Job evaluation: Job evaluation involves finding out the monetary worth of a job and helps to set up equitable pay structures.
Job design: Job design integrates employee needs with productivity needs to maximize worker efficiency.
The conclusions draw from this data will often be:
Identifying training needs of personnel
Creating recruitment strategies
Making performance reviews
Without proper job analysis by the human resources department, it is difficult for any organization to remain competitive and be able to attract and retain talent.