Transportation System Analysis Of Sri Lanka Tourism Essay

 

1. Canal transportation system was the most effective and popular transportation system in the world as well as in Sri Lanka before the road transportation by vehicles. During Dutch era they developed advance canal transportation system and used very effective and efficient way to fulfill their requirements.

2. As a result of the industrialization, automobile industry and road network systems developed concurrently all over the world and it affected Sri Lanka as well. With that the road transportation became very popular. Due to the fact that it is very efficient compare to canal transportation and ability to reach any required destinations.

3. In the same time population of the world also increased gradually. Due to this people’s life style became complex and requirements increased. In the mean time urbanization was taken place with industrialization. This has affected to Sri Lanka and caused greater influence after the introduction of open economy. Because of these reasons road network system reached its maximum capacity. After that development and expansion of roads were impossible especially in Colombo city area. But vehicle density on to the same existing roads was become more and more. As a result of this, road traffic increased drastically. This caused wastage of time on roads directly affecting productivity of our country.

4. Answer to time wastage on roads was introduction of canal transportation system with existing infrastructure. And how to initialize this facility in scientific way will be discussed in this research. Also it was evident that the existing canal system could be utilized in very efficient way to afore said requirement. Finally it was found out that wastage of time in Colombo city area can be minimized by using existing canal system with some limitation.

III

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

5. Thousands of people used to come from various places of the country to Colombo for different purposes. They waste lot of valuable and useful time on the way due to limitation of transport facilities and complex road network system existing at present.

25. The available highways are not able cater new coming vehicle to the roads and leads to wastage of time up to greatest extended. These roads are highly jammed during office and school time. Therefore it has to be eased up by canal transportation to reduce time and spending minimal expense and available resources. It is important to make the best use of existing infrastructure in preference to expansion, wherever practicable.

6. During recent past Sri Lanka had good water bone transport system available in Colombo area for transport men and material. This was very much significant during Dutch era. Therefore, it is evident that this method can be utilized even at present days with little modification to existing water ways.

7. In this research it is expected to prove that traffic conjunction in Colombo, can be over come by using existing canals system and can be minimize time wastage on roads. By using this existing canal system effective and efficient way, we can reduce the time for transportation in Colombo city.

CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

STUDY AREA

8. The study area is identified and methodology employed for data collection to carry out to research on field visits and investigations, boat rides and collect relevant data, talking to Naval Personnel, people around the canals and bus passengers, data from the Navy.

9. The study area is demarcated from Kiralapone canal which starts from Diyawanna Oya and feeding from Kotte canal. This Kiralapone canal flows and diverts into two and created Heen Ela from Rajagirya, then 1km down below it is created one more branch and made Dematagoda canal and Kiralapone canal flows further and again making two branches at Havelock town and continue to Wellawatta and other one continue till Dehiwalla. The research was conducted by using cleared area of Wellawatta to Nawala canal. During site visits in two occasions, the following details are gathered and most of the measurements taken the Naval team available at the Canals. The Salient features are as follows.

a. Length – From Wellawatta to Nawala – 1.8km

b. Width – 9 meters (mean Value)

c. Depth – 2.1 meters at high tide condition

d. Special feature – At rains no tide difference take place

SCOPE

10. The canal transportation will reduce time and lead to ease up the road traffic at city centre, minimize pollution and helps to reduce respiratory deceases, attracts tourists to the city and make new ventures like boat building industry.

11. This congested canals should be converted into scenic beauty for the city, avoid flood taking place at city centre and protect flora and fauna belongs to these area. The recreational purposes also can be achieved and it will support make health people at the city. This is one of the great opportunities to develop a social integration plan to evaluate living personals close to the canal area by them selves to value their life style. Another added advantage is to promote fishing among the people around the area.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

12. The available highways and road network system unable to cater new coming vehicle to the roads and leads to create heavy road traffic and hence it has happened to waste lots of time at the Colombo City.

HYPOTHESIS

13. Time factor can be reduced by using canal transportation spending minimal expense, with available resources and the best use of existing infrastructure.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

14. During the research it is expected to find out that usage of canal for transportation will reduce time to move point A to point B, where canals are available.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

15. As a result of this canal transportation will reduce traffic congestion, improve environment condition either side of the canal, develop the boat industry and related other employment opportunities and improvement of this canal will help the reducing the flood affect in Colombo city.

CHAPTER III

BACKGROUND

16. The good olden days canals were used for cultivation and irrigation work. The first recorded canal was built in Mesopotamia circa 4000 BC or modern day Iraq and Syria. The Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan and North India (circa 2600 BC) had sophisticated irrigation and storage systems developed, including the reservoirs built at Garner in 3000 BC. In Egypt, canals date back at least to the time of Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332-2283 BC), who ordered a canal built to bypass the cataract on the Nile near Aswan.

17. In ancient China, large canals for river transport were established as far back as the Warring States (481-221 BC), the longest one of that period being the Hong Gou (Canal of the Wild Geese), which according to the ancient historian Sima Qian connected the old states of Song, Zhang, Chen, Cai, Cao, and Wei. By far the longest canal was the Grand Canal of China, still the longest canal in the world today. It is 1,794 kilometres (1,115 miles) long and was built to carry the Emperor Yang Guang between Beijing and Hangzhou. The project began in 605 and was completed in 609, although much of the work combined older canals, the oldest section of the canal existing since at least 486 BC. Even in its narrowest urban sections it is rarely less than 30 metres (98 ft) wide [1] .

18. Canals were important for the industrial development. That’s why the greatest stimulus to canal systems came from the Industrial Revolution with its need for cheap transport of raw materials and manufactured items.

19. In Europe, particularly Britain and Ireland, and then in the young United States and the Canadian colonies, inland canals preceded the development of railroads during the earliest phase of the Industrial Revolution. The opening of the Sankey Canal in 1757, followed by the Bridgewater Canal in 1761, which halved the price of coal in Liverpool and Manchester, respectively, triggered a period of “canal mania” in Britain so that between 1760 and 1820 over one hundred canals were built.

20. The history of canal transportation in Colombo City was started in Dutch era. It was exclusively used to transport goods from hinterland to coastal area by Paru (Small Vessel driven by manpower). This tremendous and environmental friendly transportation system is still used some areas of the country in smaller scale.

21. After industrial revolution auto mobile transportation system became popular and with that development of road network system also took place. Presently number of vehicles increased but road network system became limited due to space problem. This causes the traffic congestion especially in Colombo city and as a result, people waste their valuable and useful time in between their destinations. To overcome this problem it can be used existing canal system for transportation men and material in Colombo city.

22. Except Kirullapana – Wellawatta canal, rest of the canals are still being used for water draining system of the Colombo city. However, recent past none of these canals have being properly maintained. Presently Sri Lanka Navy is undertaking to clean the Wellawatta canal, Dehiwella canal and Dematagoda canal.

23. The “Japan Jabara” is the main dilemma which need permanent solution and should be removed 100% from the canals. If not it may leads to suspend operation due sudden engine failures [2] .

24. The passenger transportation by boats in canal will reduce time and road traffic congestion at Colombo city. Also this may help cargo transportation by canal reducing road traffic in the city centre.

Lt WPHE WIJAYALATH

Index No : 10680

CHAPTER IV

DATA

25. The available highways are not able cater new coming vehicle to the roads and leads to wastage of time up to greatest extended. These roads are highly jammed during office and school time. Therefore it has to be eased up by canal transportation to reduce time and spending minimal expense and available resources. It is important to make the best use of existing infrastructure in preference to expansion, wherever practicable.

26. In Colombo city traffic congestion depends upon place to place. Therefore it is important that identify those roads and get the overall picture about traffic congestion and use available canal system to minimize the time in effective way.Traffic congestion roads are identified and details indicated down below.

a. Galle road congestion is intensified after Moratuwa and stagnated after Dehiwala

b. High level road congestion is intensified after Maharagama and stagnated after Nugagoda.

c. Low level road congestion is intensified after Kaduwela and stagnated after Kotikawatta.

d. Kaduwela road congestion is intensified after Malaba and stagnated after Battaramulla.

e. Kandy road congestion is intensified after Kadawatha and stagnated after Kiribathgoda.

f. Negambo road congestion is intensified after Welisara and stagnated after Wattle.

29. Traffic data

Traffic data within the canal corridor was taken from Road Development Authority (RDA) and it is tabulated below.

LOCATION

Daily Traffic

2002

2003

2005

2010(projected)

Domino’s Pizza Sri J’pura Rd

59408

61321

68957

85487

Open University Nawala Rd

29734

30660

34548

44648

Wall Tiles Narahenpita

20234

20770

23903

32705

Apollo Hospital Baseline Rd

23849

24632

30059

36813

Weaving Mills Havelock Rd

48968

50273

56241

67309

Wellawatte Bridge Galle Rd

51298

52937

56941

60311

Table 1

Chart 1

39. Time taken to travel from Wellawatta to Diyawanna by various vehicles, within special time periods during a day.

VEHICLE

SPECIAL TIME PERIODS OF THE DAY

0630-0830hrs

0830-1600hrs

1600-1800hrs

Public transport(bus)

1hrs 15min

1hrs

1hrs 30min

Official transport(van)

45min

35min

50min

Personnel vehicle(car)

45min

35min

50min

Motor bike

35min

30min

40min

41. Time taken to travel from Wellawatta to Nawala by various vehicles, within special time periods during a day.

VEHICLE

SPECIAL TIME PERIODS OF THE DAY

0630-0830hrs

0830-1600hrs

1600-1800hrs

Public transport(bus)

1hrs

50min

1hrs 10min

Official transport(van)

50min

40min

1hrs

Personnel vehicle(car)

50min

40min

1hrs

Motor bike

40min

30min

45min

CANALS AND DETAILS

30. Wellawatte Canal – The canal 1.8 km in length, and 25 meters wide and the banks are strengthening by Gabion Boxes, Steel sheets and Masonry wall. The open side to the sea is protected by two jetties preventing the formation of a sandbar. Some times canal mouth is stuck by sand due monsoons rains and wind. However it is not created flood hazard for the city centre. On other way this is the most important path way to discharge and regulate water when flood occurred at the City. The canal passes through a residential area and giving fabulous scenic beauty to residence over there. This is fully cleaned and dredged by the Navy and transportation is taking place by the Naval Dingy Boats. Details are as follows.

a. Morning starts from Wellawatta – 0730 hrs to 0930 hrs

b. Evening starts at Open University, Nawala – 1600 hrs to 1800 hrs

c. FGD (Fiber Glass Dingy) is propelled by 40 Horse Power of Out Board Motors (OBM) using to transport 08 passengers at a time.

d. 2.4 liters of fuel burns for the Journey

e. Depth of water at centre – 2.1 meters at high tide

f. People around area are highly supporting the project and putting garbage to the canal is very minimal at the moment.

35. Dehiwalla Canal – The canal 3.7 km in length, and 10 meters wide and the banks are strengthening by Gabion Boxes, Steel sheets and Masonry wall. The surrounding area is highly polluted and after putting tremendous effort by the Navy 3.2 km totally cleaned up to 01st July 2010 and rest of the distance in progress. Details are as follows.

a. Depth of water at centre – 2.7 meters at high tide (as per 01st July 2010)

b. Cleaning is taking placed from both the side of the canal.

Banks should be strengthen in some places

38. Dematagoda Canal -The canal 8.6 km in length, and 10 meters wide and the banks are strengthening by Gabion Boxes, Steel sheets and Masonry wall. This is already cleaned up to Royal Park by the Navy.

TIME TAKEN TO TRAVEL BY BOAT

FROM

TO

TIME DURATION

Wellawatta

Nawala

15 min

Wellawatta

Diyawanna(Battaramulla)

30 min

40. Approximately Rs. 26.00 will cost to travel from Wellawatta to Diyawanna (Baththaramulla) and Wellawatta to Nawala Rs. 22.00 by public transport (bus) according to present condition.

DETAILS ABOUT CANALS

Under mentioned details of canals also have to consider to improve time and to continue with transportation.

31. Work Scope and Action Plan for the Rehabilitation / Maintenance of Wellawatta Canal

32. General Details are as follows.

a. Total length : 1.8 km

b. Side wall height from water line – 5′-7′

c. Depth of water at center – 1 meter at low tide condition

d. Width – 8 to 10 meters

e. Middle of the canal itself and surrounding area was highly polluted and congested and cleaned by the Sri Lanka Navy.

34. Renovating and cleaning is in progressed and contributing lot from the Navy.

a. Vegetation is already removed by the Navy and cleaned the surroundings more 90%.

Japan Jabara was removed and two branches of Bodi trees at the banks should be sharpened up to avoid disturbance while boats moving.

Dredging should be done very sensitive and systematic way considering tide factor.

d. Gabion boxes are not the must for each and every place of the banks and ensure to get expert advice from the civil engineers on this matter and renovation should be done accordingly.

36. Work Scope and Action Plan for the Rehabilitation / Maintenance of Dehiwala Canal General Details are as follows.

a. Total length – 3.7 km

b. Side wall height from water line – 5′-7′

c. Depth of water at centre – 2′ – 3′

d. Width – 8 to 10 meters

e. Middle of the canal itself and surrounding area is highly polluted and congested and Navy is almost cleaned 3.2 km up to 01st July 2010.

37. Renovating and cleaning is in progressed by Navy team.

Need to be removed vegetation at banks.

Transfer removed vegetation from the site.

c. Take out and transfer floating garbage at the middle of the canal by Floating JCB (Backhoe loader) or Pontoon JCB.

Dredging should be done very sensitive and systematic way considering tide factor.

Gabion boxes are not the must for each and every place of the banks and ensure to get expert advice from the civil engineers on this matter and renovation should be done accordingly.

MISCELLANEOUS FACTORS

26. The boat and height factor of the bridges to be highly considered when concidering time and required to go through following tabulated details.

Bridge

Minimum Vertical Clearance in meters

Rainy Days

At High Tide

At Low Tide

Ethul Kotte Pizza

0.9

2.56

2.85

Water Line Kotte

Above 3 meters

Above 4-5 meters

Above 4-5 meters

Open University Gate No -01

0.5

1.7

2

Open University Gate No -02

0.4

1.8

2.1

Railway Bridge

Above 3 meters

Above 5 meters

Above 5 meters

Baseline Road at Polhangoda

0.6 meters

2

2.2

Havlock Town Bridge

0.8

2.1

2.3

Duplication Road Bridge

2

3

3.3

Gall Road

Above 3 meters

Above 4 meters

Above 4 meters

Note – This was for Fiber Glass Dingy and More capacity boat clearance will be lesser than this and give endanger for passengers in high tide conditions. In rainy days this will able to work out.

BUS PASSENGERS INTERVIEW

43. The bus passengers interview were carried out to identify bus passengers travel patterns and transferring locations including office and school time. And also to whether they are ready take up new transport mode or not. The details were gathered from people at the bus stops and the stands.

Survey Location

Number of Passengers

Remarks

Wellawatta

5

Ready to go by boat

Havlock Town

10

Ready to go by boat

Nawala

10

Ready to go by boat

Rajagiriya

5

Ready to go by boat

Battaramulla

5

Ready to go by boat

Base line road

6

Ready to go by boat

PRESENT DEVELOPMENTS

25. The Sri Lanka Navy is started the commuter service for Open University students for free of cost by using Fibre Glass Dingy from Wellawatta to Nawala. It is already made huge impact to the society and urged people to think on this fabulous environmental friendly transportation service. Due more response from the people of the society, the Navy is trying to enhanced commuter service introducing more capacity for this event. The Navy engineers were already trailed 21 number passenger capacity boats with three different types of (Out Board Motor) OBM and identified the most suitable one. The trail details are as follows.

Out Board Motors

115hp

75hp

40hp

No of Passengers

21

21

21

Approx. Time taken (From Nawala to Wellawatte)

17 Min

15 Min

15 Min

Fuel consumption

6 ltrs

4 ltrs

3 ltrs

Average cost (Rs)

35.71

24.76

18.00

TABLE-1

CHAPTER V

ANALYSIS

25. According to the hypothesis time taken by canal transportation suppose to be lesser than road transportation. Following data can be use to analyse the condition.

From Wellawatta to Diyawanna (Battaramulla)

Public transport(bus)

1hrs 15min

1hrs

1hrs 30min

Average time taken by bus = (1hrs 15min + 1hrs + 1hrs 30min)

3

= 1 hrs 15min

Average time taken by boat = 30 min

Time difference = 1hrs 15 min – 30 min

= 45 min

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From Wellawatta to Nawala

Public transport(bus)

1hrs

50min

1hrs 10min

Average time taken by bus = (1hrs + 50 min + 1hrs 10min)

3

= 1 hrs

Average time taken by boat = 15 min

Time difference = 1hrs- 15min

= 45 min

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