Results and discussion | Psychology homework help

Different Parenting Styles Significantly Influence Problem-Solving Skills in Children
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Abstract Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: Extra space and you need to include Keywords (Indented and italicized on the last line.

This study examines how parenting styles affect children’s problem-solving ability. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles are explored to determine their effects on children’s cognitive and emotional development. The literature shows that authoritative parenting balances support and realistic expectations and helps children acquire problem-solving skills. With its strong control and limited autonomy, authoritarian parenting may limit a child’s decision-making. Permissive parenting, with its warmth and uneven discipline, may hinder a child’s initiative and problem-solving. The hypotheses show authoritative parents raise children with better problem-solving skills than authoritarian or permissive parents. The study seeks to help parents, educators, and child development professionals understand how parenting styles affect children’s problem-solving skills. The study helps develop successful parenting practices, educational programs, and treatments that support holistic child development, giving children the confidence and resilience to face life’s obstacles. Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: delete Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: Delete the word study Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: Avoid using the study on both lines. You may want to consider beginning your last line with Further or Moreover. Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: The next line is where you must include Keywords.

Key words Parenting Styles, Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive.

Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: One inch Margins. Excessive spacing

Different Parenting Styles Significantly Influence Problem-Solving Skills in Children.


Parenting styles affect children’s development, especially problem-solving. Parent-child relationships, advice, and boundaries help youngsters with life’s problems. Thus, understanding how different parenting styles affect children’s problem-solving skills is crucial. This study illuminates child-rearing processes and their lasting effects, making it a relevant topic. Authority parenting, with its harmonious blend of support and reasonable expectations; authoritarian parenting, with its strict control and limited autonomy; and permissive parenting, with nurturing but inconsistent discipline, all offer unique insights into a child’s problem-solving development. A full investigation of how these parenting approaches affect children’s problem-solving ability follows. These parenting styles help us understand how children learn to handle life’s problems and make decisions. For instance, Tösten, Han and Anik (2017) in their study that looked at problem-solving skills among high school students assert that parents’ approach to parenting plays a significant role in influencing behavioral characteristics and solving of problems among children (Tösten, Han & Anik, 2017). In a study conducted by Lin et al. (2023), the findings showed that problem solving abilities were influenced by parental engagement with children (Lin et al., 2023). According to Shokoohi-Yekta et al. (2018), problem-solving skills of children are determined by the relationship between parents and children. These studies all point to the fact that parental style plays a critical role in determining children’s problem-solving skills. Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: children Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: You may want to include a couple of studies to support your introduction.

Literature Review

Authoritative Parenting

Authoritative parenting is often considered successful. Parents provide warmth and emotional support while setting clear and acceptable expectations for their children in this parenting style. Sanvictores and Mendez (2022) noted that authoritative parents provide valuable guidance and foster independence. They also encourage open conversation so youngsters feel safe expressing themselves and seeking guidance.

Lin et al. (2023) found that authoritative parenting helps children develop strong problem-solving skills. Authoritative parents can blend loving and setting boundaries, which is their strength. This balance gives youngsters a safe and supportive space to practice decision- Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: Make sure that you double-space throughout your paper

making and problem-solving. The effectiveness of authoritative parenting in promoting healthy child development is shown by the superior problem-solving skills of their offspring. Children learn independence and resilience from authoritative parenting. Children learn to make decisions, take initiative, and face problems by providing emotional support and clear expectations. This method promotes communication, critical thinking, and dispute resolution. Authoritative parenting style fosters guidance at the expense of control. It values children empowerment because it enables them to explore their problem-solving skills. The style is also associated with the existence of stable system of support for children.

Authoritarian Parenting

Authoritarian parenting emphasizes rigorous control, punishment, and limited kid autonomy. Authoritative parents set and enforce rules without negotiation. This parenting style emphasizes obedience and conformity and may lack emotional warmth and compassion. Averett and Lacy (2021) define authoritarian parenting as parents who demand their children follow regulations. Parents expect complete obedience from their children under this parenting style. This method can establish discipline and order, but it can also stifle family communication and warmth.

According to Li et al. (2023), authoritarian parenting may impair children’s problem-solving. Authoritarian families may raise less problem-solvers because of stringent limitations and limited decision-making freedom. Kuppens & Ceulemans, (2019) contend that children who lack autonomy and problem-solving skills may become dependent on others later in life and unable to handle complex issues. Well-intentioned authoritarian parenting might hurt a child’s problem-solving skills. Authoritative parenting’s pros and cons must be understood to examine how parenting styles affect children’s development.

Permissive Parenting

Permissive parents are kind and supportive and do not control their kids. Loving and permissive parents prioritize their child’s wants and preferences while being slack in the discipline (Lo et al., 2020). For a good parent-child bond, this parenting style gives greater freedom, fewer limits, and less supervision. Permissive homes respect kids’ choices. This method may make problem-solving harder due to its lack of structure and restrictions. Due to a lack of accountability and autonomy, Children raised by permissive parents may struggle to make decisions, take the initiative, and face hardship, according to Lo et al. (2020.

Rönsch (2020) examined how permissive parenting may affect children’s problem-solving. Permissive parents foster creativity, exploration, and open communication, but they struggle with discipline and setting expectations. Due to this inconsistency, children raised in such settings may struggle to grasp boundaries and obligations. Permissive parenting may prevent children from developing accountability and decision-making skills, which may hinder their problem-solving skills, according to Lanjekar et al. (2022). Complex problems that demand effective problem-solving can be challenging to solve without organization and explicit principles. Permissive parenting affects children’s development; thus, parents and professionals must understand it to facilitate healthy growth and skill development.

Permissive parenting lacks structure and boundaries, which is a significant worry. Without clear guidelines, children may struggle to grasp acceptable behavior, make decisions, and solve challenging problems (Rönsch, 2020). Without a regulated framework, children may not develop a strong feeling of responsibility, making it hard for them to address complicated problems autonomously.


The literature review suggests that parenting styles strongly influence children’s problem-solving skills. The following hypotheses are proposed:

Hypothesis 3: Permissive parents’ lack of structure and clear expectations might make it hard for their children to take initiative and solve problems. Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: Extra space

This research helps parents, educators, and child development experts understand how parenting styles affect children problem-solving. Understanding parenting styles and problem-solving skills can help parents create healthy, capable children. Teachers and parents must grasp how authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles affect problem-solving. This understanding can assist parents and teachers in choosing parenting approaches and accommodate kids’ problem-solving talents. This research can inform parental programs and educational methods that help children develop holistically and face life’s challenges with confidence and resilience. Comment by Harry Gerald Rotter: Avoid using the word kids. Children, adolescents, etc. depending on your population. Start thinking about a specific age or grade grouping.


The method section of a research proposal performs the role of convincing a reader that methods and design applied in a study will contribute to the solutions of the identified research problem (Sileyew, 2019). The method section helps readers to link the study objectives and study problems (Sileyew, 2019). The subsections of this part are outlined as follows:


The current study will use a selected population of school-aged children from 5 different schools within the local district and their parents. A total of 120 participants will be selected. The demographic of the participants will comprise of 60 male and 60 female participants. The children will make up a majority of the sample comprising of 70 school going children, and the remaining 50 will comprise of adult parents. The children participating in the study will be aged between 8-12 years, because this is the appropriate age group that can exhibit noticeable problem-solving skills. Additionally, the selected age group of the children will consist of individuals who depend on parental influence to make decisions and solve problems. The parents will comprise of individuals aged between 30 to 52 years of age. The parents will consist of working-class individuals with at least some college education who are still in the working age bracket. This implies that the study will not select a parent who is 60 years old and above. Selection of the research participants for the current study will be done through simple random sampling. Simple random sampling as described by Elfil and Negida (2017) in their article is applied when the target population for a study is accessible. The participating children and their parents will be easily accessible since the study will use participants from a particular school. The sample will then be selected randomly from the target population.


The measures applied in a study are crucial in evaluating dependent variables in a study. The current study will use parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ). Previous studies that used PSDQ associated it with high reliability, consistency, and validity of scores (Martins et al., 2018). PSDQ as an item of measurement can be filled by both parents and children participating in a study. The current study will use the PSDQ with 15 items for authoritative parenting which will be grouped into subscales that will include granting of autonomy, support and warmth, and induction or reasoning. 12 items for authoritarian that will be grouped into subscales of verbal hostility, physical coercion, and non-reasoning. Assessment of permissive style will be conducted using 5 scale items which will be labelled from 1 to 5. PSDQ has been used in the assessment of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles with higher chances of reliability (Lee & Brown, 2020). However, a study conducted by Lee and Brown (2020) revealed that cultural settings and adaptation should be considered as confounding factors. The current study will overcome this concern by focusing on participants that are found within a specific locality thereby eliminating the issue of cultural variations.

Apart from PSDQ, the current study will also use Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale (CCNES). The scale will be used because the current study will determine how parents respond to children with negative emotions, how parents interact and socialize with such children and how parents help children control their emotions. Studies that have used CCNES for these measurements have reported reliability and consistency of scores (Fernandes et al., 2022). The are six sub-scales that will make the tool relevant for the current study. These include expressive encouragement, emotion-focused, punitive, distress response, problem-focused, and minimizing. The current study will also use the McMaster Family Assessment Device because it includes items that will be relevant when evaluating the dependent variable of the study. The items under the device that will be relevant in the study are family communication, family affective responsiveness, family problem solving, and family affective involvement. Parents and children will report how each element relates to their families by scoring them in a 5-scale item.


After identification of the research participants, the next step will include obtaining their consent and permission to participate in the study. The participants will be debriefed about the research and hypothesis being tested. Instructions will be given to the participants on how the study will be conducted and how they will participate in the assessment. Hard copies of the three selected measurement tools that will include the PSDQ, CCNES, and FAD will be distributed to the participants. The participants will then be requested to fill in the assessments and a maximum of 2 hours will be given to each participant for filling in the measurement tools. The filled documents will be collected from the participants for data collection and analysis.

Hypothesis Testing

Research question 1: Do children raised by authoritative parents solve problems better than those raised by authoritarian or permissive parents?

Research question 2: Do authoritarian parents limit their children’s decision-making, which may impair their problem-solving capabilities?

Research question 3: Do permissive parents’ lack of structure and clear expectations make it hard for their children to take initiative and solve problems?

The current study will aim to answer the above listed research questions by following the research method and design that has been identified. Existing literature offers information that can confirm the hypothesis guiding the study. However, this does not imply that the study stops at this stage. The research will be conducted to identify the actual findings as per the selected population and sample in the current study.


Averett, K. H., & Lacy, G. (2021). Ownership Versus Partnership Parenting: Parenting Styles Within the Homeschooling Movement.
Journal of Family Issues, 0192513X2110551.×211055125

Elfil, M., & Negida, A. (2017). Sampling methods in clinical research; an educational review.

Rönsch, H. (2020). Effectiveness of laws and policies governing permissive parenting in pursuit of the reduction of severe child abuse in Germany.
Children and Youth Services Review,
119, 105510.

Sanvictores, T., & Mendez, M. D. (2022).
Types of Parenting Styles and Effects On Children. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.


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